The ABCD model for writing objectives
will include 4 distinct components: Audience, Behavior, Condition and
must be both observable and measurable to be effective.
- Use of words like understand and learn in writing
objectives are generally not acceptable as they are difficult to
objectives are a vital part of instructional design because they provide
the roadmap for designing and delivering curriculum.
the design and development of curriculum, a comparison of the content to
be delivered should be made to the objectives identified for the program.
This process, called performance agreement, ensures that the final
product meets the overall goal of instruction identified in the first
Characteristics of objectives
oriented / clearly written / specific
by both quantitative and qualitative criteria
a successful learning in behavioral terms
in terms of performance
- May be
presented in 2 levels: 1st level and 2nd level
level: identify the overall goal of the instruction for the program or
called terminal objectives
level: identify the goals required to meet the 1st level
called enabling objectives
a standard sentence, the English 101 student should be able to identify
the noun and verb without error.
an assortment of EMS equipment to pick from, the
paramedic should be able to identify all of the equipment necessary to
perform rapid sequence intubation without error.
EMT-B participant in this pediatric workshop should be able to identify at
least 4 warning signs of possible child abuse from a family member’s
interview that contains 5 warning signs.
4 Parts of an ABCD Objective
objective does not have to be written in this order (ABCD), but it should
contain all of these elements
Describe the intended learner or end user of the
Often the audience is identified only in the 1st
level of objective because of redundancy
Example: The paramedic refresher participant…
Example: The EMT-B student…
Example: The prehospital care provider attending
be observable and measurable (you will define the measurement elsewhere in
- If it
is a skill, it should be a real world skill
“behavior” can include demonstration of knowledge or skills in any of the
domains of learning: cognitive, psychomotor, affective, or interpersonal
… should be able to write a report…
…should be able to describe the steps…
remembering or reproducing something which has presumably been learned
with what a learner should know, understand, comprehend, solve, spell,
some muscular motor skill, some manipulation of material and objects, or
some act that requires a neuromuscular coordination
with how a learner moves or controls his/her body
of two different types of behaviors: reflexive (attitudes) and voluntary
reactions and actions (values)
perception, decision, action and evaluation
learner skills (not attitude or knowledge) associated with interpersonal
a learner interacts with others in a variety of situations
or tools that may (or may not) be utilized in completion of the behavior
conditions may also be included
…given an oxygen wrench, regulator and D tank with oxygen…
…given the complete works of William Shakespeare…
…given the following environment: 10PM, snowing, temperature 0 degrees C…
the standard for acceptable performance (time, accuracy, proportion,
… without error.
… 9 out of 10 times.
…within 60 seconds.
Review of ABCD Objectives
- Who is
to exhibit the performance?
- What observable
performance is the learner to exhibit?
conditions are provided for the learner at the time of evaluation?
constitutes a minimum acceptable response?
process where content is compared to objectives to determine if the
content being delivered actually enables the student to meet the
“reiterative” we mean that throughout the development of the course you
should be reviewing to see if performance agreement is present. It is
much easier to make minor adjustments as you go along than it is to make
major changes in the end.
- If you
cannot clearly see that the content being delivered meets the objectives
then you must decide the following:
the objectives to meet the content
enhance or remove the content to meet the objective as stated